Version III: Posted February 26th, 2016


Vichy and the Vel d’Hiv:
Examining the German Occupation of Paris

La Rafle, known in English as the Vel d’Hiv roundup, is one of France’s most historic moments. During World War II, after Germany occupied the country, newly established anti-Semitic Vichy government moved forward with a plan to eradicate Paris of its Jewish population.[1] On the 16th and 17th of July 1942, French police collected roughly thirteen thousand Jewish residents of Paris that were not French citizens.[2] For the few familiar with the event, a reiterated fact is that these people were held prisoner in the Vélodrome without food, water, or functioning bathrooms. Eventually, the vast majority of these Parisians would be sent to Auschwitz for extermination.[3] The Vel d’Hiv roundup forever changed Parisians and the event should be studied beyond the perspective of the victims and the anti-Semitic government. I will argue that it is vital that historians ask how other important players involved in the Vichy regime, such as Reinhard Heydrich, and the French Resistance shaped the public’s opinion and impacted the Jewish experience in Paris during this event. Upon examining primary and secondary resources regarding the Vel d’Hiv roundup and the established Vichy regime, a clear image of the reasoning, experience, and aftermath of the event can be created beyond the perspective of the victims.

There are several primary resources available including catalogues of interviews of survivors and French Resistance members, diaries, documentaries, and other films of the event. One particularly useful collection may be Patricia Herberer’s collection which includes letters and diary entries; court, government, and military documents; speeches and newspaper articles; and photographs and art.[4] Most of the material focuses on the experience of the victims, however, there is also a well reviewed, edited, diary of an American that married a Frenchman and joined the French Resistance.[5] The diary of Virginia D’Albert-Lake shows the French experience during this time separate from the Jewish perspective. Beyond this diary, this primary source also provided documents of the D’Albert-Lakes and their experiences with the Vichy regime.[6]

Secondary sources are abundant in many languages on this topic. The greatest resources are the books and journal articles of Robert O. Paxton who is the leading expert on both the event and the Vichy regime. Beyond Paxton’s writing, he has also completed a significant amount of thorough book reviews that will not only provide excellent secondary source material, but his reviews also provide his research in their critiques creating a clear image of the development of the historiography on the event. The film La Rafle, also called The Roundup in its English distributions, is a heavily praised French film that narrates the experiences of French families in Paris during the Vel d’Hiv roundup as well as their experiences in camps and eventual extermination in Auschwitz.[7] Several of the main characters are based on actual people and their experiences.[8] Other secondary sources that can elaborate on the event beyond the perspective of those arrested present theories of the Nazi regime, Vichy government, and laws in place during the event.[9]  Leslie Sprout provided a historical monograph that focused on music written by the French Resistance during the German Occupation and was secretly dispersed.[10] These songs and their analyses present the views of French Resistance composers, prisoners, and commissioned Vichy works during the time of the Vel d’Hiv Roundup.[11] Music, like other forms of art, can help provide a new perspective to an event or experience and Sprout discussed the distribution of this music during and after the war.[12]

When mentioning the Vel d’Hiv Roundup to an American most do not know of the event at all. This could be due to France only admitting their hand in the event on its anniversary in 1995.[13] It is not only important to understand the event and what historians have said and are saying about the event but, as a future teacher, it is important to understand aspects of the Holocaust as an event that occurred beyond the borders of North and North West Europe, Germany and their surrounding territories. Furthermore, it is just as important to know the perspectives of everyone involved, the establishment that let such an event occur, and how it changed the people of France. A clear image of the event’s reasoning, experience, and aftermath can only be attained through a detailed examination of the existing material of the victims, the Vichy government, and those that opposed them.


Working Bibliography

Primary Sources

Heberer, Patricia, comp. Children During the Holocaust. 1st ed. Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2011.

The Lady in Number 6: Music Saved My Life. Directed by Malcolm Clarke. Produced by Malcolm Clarke, Nicholas Reed, and Christopher Branch. Performed by Aliza Sommer-Herz, Zdenka Fantlova, and Anita Lasker-Wallfisch. Reed Entertainment, 2013. DVD.Litoff, Judy.

Litoff, Judy. An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia D’Albert-Lake. New York: Fordham University Press, 2006.Matthäus, Jürgen, and Mark Roseman, comps.

Matthäus, Jürgen, and Mark Roseman, comps. Jewish Responses to Persecution: 1933-1938. Vol. 1. Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2010.

“”Mémoires Vivantes” Collection.” Interview by Martine Lemaître and Geneviève Dreyfus-Armand. La Bibliothèque De Documentation Internationale Contemporaine. 2004. Accessed February 1, 2016. http://www.bdic.fr/collections/quels-documents/documents audiovisuels/36-collections/164-video2.

“Témoignages: Dialogues Et Rencontres.” Interview by Musée De La Résistance Et De La Déportation. Centre D’Histoire De La Résistance Et De La Déportation. Accessed February 01, 2016. http://www.chrd.lyon.fr/chrd/sections/fr/ressources_historiqu/temoignages.

Secondary Sources

Birnbaum, Pierre. Léon Blum: Prime Minister, Socialist, Zionist. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2015.

Blatman, Daniel. “Holocaust Scholarship: Towards a Post-Uniqueness Era.” Journal of Genocide Research 17, no. 1 (March 2015): 21-43.

Brunetaux, Audrey. “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup through the Camera Lens.” History & Memory 26, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2014): 136-162.Gildea, Robert.

Gildea, Robert. Fighters in the Shadows a New History of the French Resistance. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2015.

Horowitz, Irving Louis. “Stages in the Evolution of Holocaust Studies: From the Nuremberg Trials to the Present.” Human Rights Review10, no. 4 (November 2009): 493-504.

Houwink ten Cate, Johannes. “The Future of Holocaust Studies.” Jewish Political Studies Review 22, no. 1/2 (Spring 2010): 33-41.

Kitson, Simon. The Hunt for Nazi Spies: Fighting Espionage in Vichy France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

La Rafle. Directed by Rose Bosch. Produced by Alain Goldman and Catherine Morisse. Performed by Jean Reno, Mélanie Laurent, and Gad Elmaleh. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Gaumont Film Company, 2010. DVD.Levin, Colette G..

Levin, Colette G.. The French Review 78, no. 5. American Association of Teachers of French (2005): 1054–55.

Marrus, Michael R., and Robert O. Paxton. “The Nazis and the Jews in Occupied Western Europe, 1940-1944”. The Journal of Modern History 54 (4). University of Chicago Press (1982): 687–714.

Marrus, Michael Robert, and Robert O. Paxton. Vichy France and the Jews. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Paxton, Robert O. Parades and Politics at Vichy; the French Officer Corps under Marshal Pétain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966.

Paxton, Robert O. Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944. New York: Knopf; Distributed by Random House, 1972.

Poznanski, Renée. “Reflections on Jewish Resistance and Jewish Resistants in France”. Jewish Social Studies 2, no.1. Indiana University Press (1995): 124–58.

Rensmann, Lars. Journal of Contemporary History 45, no. 1. Sage Publications, Ltd.( 2010): 227–29.

Sayare, Scott. “France Reflects on Its Role in Wartime Fate of Jews.” The New York Times. July 28, 2012.

Schenk McCord, Janet. “A Study of the Suicides of Eight Holocaust Survivor/Writers.” Dissertation Abstracts International, 1995. Historical Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2016).

Sprout, Leslie A. The Musical Legacy of Wartime France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Sweets, John F. 1986. Choices in Vichy France: The French Under Nazi Occupation. New York: Oxford University Press, USA, 1986.


Endnotes

[1] Audrey Brunetaux, “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup through the Camera Lens,” History & Memory 26, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2014): 136-137.

[2] Brunetaux, “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup,” 136.

[3] Brunetaux, “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup,” 136.

[4] Patricia Heberer, comp, Children During the Holocaust, 1st ed, Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context (Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2011).

[5] Judy Litoff, An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia D’Albert-Lake (New York: Fordham University Press, 2006).

[6] Litoff, An American Heroine in the French Resistance.

[7]  La Rafle, Directed by Rose Bosch, Produced by Alain Goldman and Catherine Morisse,

Performed by Jean Reno, Mélanie Laurent, and Gad Elmaleh (Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Gaumont Film Company, 2010).

[8] La Raffle, Directed by Rose Bosch.

[9] See Horowitz for the four-stage Holocaust analysis, Brunetaux for a dialogue on anti-Semitic Paris, and Levin for laws and administration.

[10] Leslie A. Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).

[11] Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France.

[12] Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France.

[13] Scott Sayare, “France Reflects on Its Role in Wartime Fate of Jews,” The New York Times, July 28, 2012.

 


Version II: Posted February 25th, 2016


Vichy and the Vel d’Hiv:
Examining the German Occupation of Paris

La Rafle, known in English as the Vel d’Hiv roundup, is one of France’s most historic moments. During World War II, after Germany occupied the country, newly established anti-Semitic Vichy government moved forward with a plan to eradicate Paris of its Jewish population.[1] On the 16th and 17th of July 1942, French police collected roughly thirteen thousand Jewish residents of Paris that were not French citizens.[2] Upon arrest, the families would be held in the Vélodrome without food, water, or sanitation.[3] Eventually, the vast majority of these Parisians would be sent to Auschwitz for extermination.[4] Beyond the perspective of the victims, the Vel d’Hiv roundup forever changed Parisians and the event should be studied beyond their perspective. It is vital that historians ask how other important players involved in the Vichy regime, such as Reinhard Heydrich, and the French Resistance shaped the public’s opinion and impacted the Jewish experience in Paris during this event. Upon examining primary and secondary resources regarding the Vel d’Hiv roundup and the established Vichy regime a clear image of the reasoning, experience, and aftermath of the event can be created beyond the perspective of the victims.

There are several primary resources available including catalogues of interviews of survivors and French Resistance members, diaries, documentaries, and other films of the event. One particularly useful collection may be Patricia Herberer’s collection which includes letters and diary entries; court, government, and military documents; speeches and newspaper articles; and photographs and art.[5] Most of the material focuses on the experience of the victims, however, there is also a well reviewed, edited, diary of an American that married a Frenchman and joined the French Resistance.[6] This diary shows the French experience during this time separate from the Jewish perspective. Beyond the diary of Virginia D’Albert-Lake, this primary source also provided documents of the D’Albert-Lakes.[7]

Secondary sources are abundant in many languages on this topic. The greatest resources are the books and journal articles of Robert O. Paxton who is the leading expert on both the event and the Vichy regime. Beyond Paxton’s writing, he has also completed a significant amount of thorough book reviews that will not only provide excellent secondary source material, but his reviews also provide his research in their critiques creating a clear image of the development of the historiography on the event. The film La Rafle, also called The Roundup in its English distributions, is a heavily praised French film that narrates the experiences of French families in Paris during the Vel d’Hiv roundup as well as their experiences in camps and eventual extermination in Auschwitz.[8] Several of the main characters are based on actual people and their experiences.[9] Other secondary sources that can elaborate on the event beyond the perspective of those arrested present theories of the Nazi regime, Vichy government, and laws in place during the event.[10]  Leslie Sprout provided a historical monograph that focused on music written by the French Resistance during the German Occupation and was secretly dispersed.[11] These songs and their analyses present the views of French Resistance composers, prisoners, and commissioned Vichy works during the time of the Vel d’Hiv Roundup.[12] Music, like other forms of art, can help provide a new perspective to an event or experience and Sprout discussed the distribution of this music during and after the war.[13]

When mentioning the Vel d’Hiv Roundup to an American most do not know of the event at all. This could be due to France only admitting their hand in the event on its anniversary in 1995.[14] It is not only important to understand the event and what historians have said and are saying about the event but, as a future teacher, it is important to understand aspects of the Holocaust as an event that occurred beyond the borders of North and North West Europe, Germany and their surrounding territories. Furthermore, it is just as important to know the perspectives of everyone involved, the establishment that let such an event occur, and how it changed the people of France. A clear image of the event’s reasoning, experience, and aftermath can only be attained through a detailed examination of the existing material of the victims, the Vichy government, and those that opposed them.


Working Bibliography

Primary Sources

Heberer, Patricia, comp. Children During the Holocaust. 1st ed. Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2011.

The Lady in Number 6: Music Saved My Life. Directed by Malcolm Clarke. Produced by Malcolm Clarke, Nicholas Reed, and Christopher Branch. Performed by Aliza Sommer-Herz, Zdenka Fantlova, and Anita Lasker-Wallfisch. Reed Entertainment, 2013. DVD.Litoff, Judy.

Litoff, Judy. An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia D’Albert-Lake. New York: Fordham University Press, 2006.Matthäus, Jürgen, and Mark Roseman, comps.

Matthäus, Jürgen, and Mark Roseman, comps. Jewish Responses to Persecution: 1933-1938. Vol. 1. Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2010.“”Mémoires Vivantes” Collection.” Interview by Martine Lemaître and Geneviève Dreyfus-

“”Mémoires Vivantes” Collection.” Interview by Martine Lemaître and Geneviève Dreyfus-Armand. La Bibliothèque De Documentation Internationale Contemporaine. 2004. Accessed February 1, 2016. http://www.bdic.fr/collections/quels-documents/documents audiovisuels/36-collections/164-video2.

“Témoignages: Dialogues Et Rencontres.” Interview by Musée De La Résistance Et De La Déportation. Centre D’Histoire De La Résistance Et De La Déportation. Accessed February 01, 2016. http://www.chrd.lyon.fr/chrd/sections/fr/ressources_historiqu/temoignages.

 

Secondary Sources

Birnbaum, Pierre. Léon Blum: Prime Minister, Socialist, Zionist. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2015.

Blatman, Daniel. “Holocaust Scholarship: Towards a Post-Uniqueness Era.” Journal of Genocide Research 17, no. 1 (March 2015): 21-43.

Brunetaux, Audrey. “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup through the Camera Lens.” History & Memory 26, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2014): 136-162.Gildea, Robert.

Gildea, Robert. Fighters in the Shadows a New History of the French Resistance. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2015.

Horowitz, Irving Louis. “Stages in the Evolution of Holocaust Studies: From the Nuremberg Trials to the Present.” Human Rights Review10, no. 4 (November 2009): 493-504.

Houwink ten Cate, Johannes. “The Future of Holocaust Studies.” Jewish Political Studies Review 22, no. 1/2 (Spring 2010): 33-41.

Kitson, Simon. The Hunt for Nazi Spies: Fighting Espionage in Vichy France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

La Rafle. Directed by Rose Bosch. Produced by Alain Goldman and Catherine Morisse. Performed by Jean Reno, Mélanie Laurent, and Gad Elmaleh. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Gaumont Film Company, 2010. DVD.Levin, Colette G..

Levin, Colette G.. The French Review 78, no. 5. American Association of Teachers of French (2005): 1054–55.

Marrus, Michael R., and Robert O. Paxton. “The Nazis and the Jews in Occupied Western Europe, 1940-1944”. The Journal of Modern History 54 (4). University of Chicago Press (1982): 687–714.

Marrus, Michael Robert, and Robert O. Paxton. Vichy France and the Jews. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Paxton, Robert O. Parades and Politics at Vichy; the French Officer Corps under Marshal Pétain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966.

Paxton, Robert O. Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944. New York: Knopf; Distributed by Random House, 1972.

Poznanski, Renée. “Reflections on Jewish Resistance and Jewish Resistants in France”. Jewish Social Studies 2, no.1. Indiana University Press (1995): 124–58.

Rensmann, Lars. Journal of Contemporary History 45, no. 1. Sage Publications, Ltd.( 2010): 227–29.

Sayare, Scott. “France Reflects on Its Role in Wartime Fate of Jews.” The New York Times. July 28, 2012.

Schenk McCord, Janet. “A Study of the Suicides of Eight Holocaust Survivor/Writers.” Dissertation Abstracts International, 1995. Historical Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2016).

Sprout, Leslie A. The Musical Legacy of Wartime France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Sweets, John F. 1986. Choices in Vichy France: The French Under Nazi Occupation. New York: Oxford University Press, USA, 1986.


Endnotes

[1] Audrey Brunetaux, “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup through the Camera Lens,” History & Memory 26, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2014): 136-137.

[2] Brunetaux, “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup”

[3] Brunetaux, “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup”

[4] Brunetaux, “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup”

[5] Patricia Heberer, comp, Children During the Holocaust, 1st ed, Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context (Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2011).

[6] Judy Litoff, An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia D’Albert-Lake (New York: Fordham University Press, 2006).

[7] Litoff, An American Heroine in the French Resistance.

[8]  La Rafle, Directed by Rose Bosch, Produced by Alain Goldman and Catherine Morisse,

Performed by Jean Reno, Mélanie Laurent, and Gad Elmaleh (Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Gaumont Film Company, 2010).

[9] La Raffle, Directed by Rose Bosch.

[10] See Horowitz for the four-stage Holocaust analysis, Brunetaux for a dialogue on anti-Semitic Paris, and Levin for laws and administration.

[11] Leslie A. Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).

[12] Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France.

[13] Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France.

[14] Scott Sayare, “France Reflects on Its Role in Wartime Fate of Jews,” The New York Times, July 28, 2012.

 


Version I: Posted February 16th, 2016


Vichy and the Vel d’Hiv:
Examining the German Occupation of Paris

La Rafle, known in English as the Vel d’Hiv roundup, is a historic moment in France’s history. During World War II, after Germany occupied the country, the existing anti-Semitic Vichy government moved forward with a plan to eradicate Paris of its Jewish population. On the 16th and 17th of July 1942, French police collected roughly thirteen thousand non-citizen Jewish residents of Paris.[1] Upon arrest, there were two separation options in the process of the roundup. The first option was that singles and childless couples be sent to Drancy Camp.[2] The families would be held in the Vélodrome without food, water, or sanitation.[3] Eventually, the vast majority of these Parisians would be sent to Auschwitz for extermination.[4] In numbers, they were a third of France’s Jewish population and a third of them were children.[5] However, these two categories of victims of the Vel d’Hiv roundup are just one facet of this historic event. Other important factors include the Vichy regime, Reinhard Heydrich and other Germans controlling France, and the French Resistance. Upon examining primary and secondary resources regarding the Vel d’Hiv roundup and the established Vichy regime a clear image of be made of the reasoning, experience, and aftermath of the event.

There are several primary resources available including catalogues of interviews of survivors and French Resistance members, diaries, documentaries, and other films of the event. One particularly useful collection may be Herberer’s collection which includes letters and diary entries; court, government, and military documents; speeches and newspaper articles; and photographs and art.[6] The film La Rafle, also called The Roundup in its English distributions, is a heavily praised French film that narrates the experiences of French families in Paris during the Vel d’Hiv roundup as well as their experiences in camps and eventual extermination in Auschwitz.[7] Several of the main characters are based on actual people and their experiences.[8] Beyond the experiences of the victims, there is also a well reviewed, edited, diary of an American that married a Frenchman and joined the French Resistance.[9] Beyond the diary of Virginia D’Albert-Lake, this primary source also provided documents of the D’Albert-Lakes.[10] The most difficult aspect of primary source material will be finding a lot of detailed material in English.Secondary sources are abundant in many languages on this topic. The greatest resources are the works of Robert O. Paxton who is the leading expert on both the event and the Vichy regime. Several of his books and journals are in the working bibliography along with several other books he recommended through reviews. Those books provide the current historiography of the event as well as the experiences and lead up to the event. Other secondary sources that can potentially help understand the event beyond the perspective of those arrested present theories of the Nazi regime, Vichy government, and laws in place during the event.

Secondary sources are abundant in many languages on this topic. The greatest resources are the works of Robert O. Paxton who is the leading expert on both the event and the Vichy regime. Several of his books and journals are in the working bibliography along with several other books he recommended through reviews. Those books provide the current historiography of the event as well as the experiences and lead up to the event. Other secondary sources that can potentially help understand the event beyond the perspective of those arrested present theories of the Nazi regime, Vichy government, and laws in place during the event.[11] Meanwhile, other secondary sources may be worth looking into that may not be fruitful. For example, Sprout provided a historical monography focused on music in France during the German Occupation.[12] Some of the songs studied include secret Resistance songs by multiple composers, prisoners, and commissioned Vichy works.[13] Music, like other forms of art, can help provide a new perspective to an event or experience and Sprout even discussed the distribution of this music during and after the war.[14]

This event has only recently become acknowledged by the French government and is not an event taught in most public grade schools when discussing World War II. It is not only important to understand the event and what historians have said and are saying about the event but, as a future teacher, it is important to understand aspects of the Holocaust as an event that occurred beyond the borders of North and North West Europe, Germany and their immediately surrounding territories. Furthermore, it is just as important to know the perspectives of everyone involved and the establishment that let such an event occur. Such clear image of the event’s reasoning, experience, and aftermath can only be attained through a detailed examination.


Working Bibliography

Primary Sources

Heberer, Patricia, comp. Children During the Holocaust. 1st ed. Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2011.

The Lady in Number 6: Music Saved My Life. Directed by Malcolm Clarke. Produced by Malcolm Clarke, Nicholas Reed, and Christopher Branch. Performed by Aliza Sommer-Herz, Zdenka Fantlova, and Anita Lasker-Wallfisch. Reed Entertainment, 2013. DVD.

La Rafle. Directed by Rose Bosch. Produced by Alain Goldman and Catherine Morisse. Performed by Jean Reno, Mélanie Laurent, and Gad Elmaleh. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Gaumont Film Company, 2010. DVD.Litoff, Judy.

Litoff, Judy. An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia D’Albert-Lake. New York: Fordham University Press, 2006.

Matthäus, Jürgen, and Mark Roseman, comps. Jewish Responses to Persecution: 1933-1938. Vol. 1. Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2010.

“”Mémoires Vivantes” Collection.” Interview by Martine Lemaître and Geneviève Dreyfus-Armand. La Bibliothèque De Documentation Internationale Contemporaine. 2004. Accessed February 1, 2016. http://www.bdic.fr/collections/quels-documents/documents-audiovisuels/36-collections/164-video2.

“Témoignages: Dialogues Et Rencontres.” Interview by Musée De La Résistance Et De La Déportation. Centre D’Histoire De La Résistance Et De La Déportation. Accessed February 01, 2016. http://www.chrd.lyon.fr/chrd/sections/fr/ressources_historiqu/temoignages.

Secondary Sources

Birnbaum, Pierre. Léon Blum: Prime Minister, Socialist, Zionist. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2015.

Blatman, Daniel. “Holocaust Scholarship: Towards a Post-Uniqueness Era.” Journal of Genocide Research 17, no. 1 (March 2015): 21-43.

Brunetaux, Audrey. “Revisiting the Vel d’Hiv Roundup through the Camera Lens.” History & Memory (2014): 136.

Gildea, Robert. Fighters in the Shadows a New History of the French Resistance. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2015.

Horowitz, Irving Louis. “Stages in the Evolution of Holocaust Studies: From the Nuremberg Trials to the Present.” Human Rights Review10, no. 4 (November 2009): 493-504.

Houwink ten Cate, Johannes. “The Future of Holocaust Studies.” Jewish Political Studies Review 22, no. 1/2 (Spring 2010): 33-41.

Kitson, Simon. The Hunt for Nazi Spies: Fighting Espionage in Vichy France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Laffitte, Michel. “Case Study: The Vélodrome D’hiver Round-up: July 16 and 17, 1942.” Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. December 28, 2008.

Levin, Colette G.. The French Review 78, no. 5. American Association of Teachers of French (2005): 1054–55.

Marrus, Michael R., and Robert O. Paxton. “The Nazis and the Jews in Occupied Western Europe, 1940-1944”. The Journal of Modern History 54 (4). University of Chicago Press (1982): 687–714.

Marrus, Michael Robert, and Robert O. Paxton. Vichy France and the Jews. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Paxton, Robert O. Parades and Politics at Vichy; the French Officer Corps under Marshal Pétain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1966.

Paxton, Robert O. Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944. New York: Knopf; Distributed by Random House, 1972.

Poznanski, Renée. “Reflections on Jewish Resistance and Jewish Resistants in France”. Jewish Social Studies 2, no.1. Indiana University Press (1995): 124–58.

Rensmann, Lars. Journal of Contemporary History 45, no. 1. Sage Publications, Ltd.( 2010): 227–29.

Schenk McCord, Janet. “A Study of the Suicides of Eight Holocaust Survivor/Writers.” Dissertation Abstracts International, 1995. Historical Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 1, 2016).

Sprout, Leslie A. The Musical Legacy of Wartime France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Sweets, John F. 1986. Choices in Vichy France: The French Under Nazi Occupation. New York: Oxford University Press, USA, 1986.


Endnotes

[1] Michel Laffitte, “Case Study: The Vélodrome D’hiver Round-up: July 16 and 17, 1942,” Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, December 28, 2008.

[2] Laffitte, “Case Study.”

[3] Laffitte, “Case Study.”

[4] Laffitte, “Case Study.”

[5] Laffitte, “Case Study.”

[6] Patricia Heberer, comp, Children During the Holocaust, 1st ed, Documenting Life and Destruction: Holocaust Sources in Context (Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press in Association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2011).

[7] La Rafle, Directed by Rose Bosch, Produced by Alain Goldman and Catherine Morisse, Performed by Jean Reno, Mélanie Laurent, and Gad Elmaleh (Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Gaumont Film Company, 2010).

[8] La Raffle, Directed by Rose Bosch.

[9] Judy Litoff, An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia D’Albert-Lake (New York: Fordham University Press, 2006).

[10] Litoff, An American Heroine in the French Resistance.

[11] See Horowitz for the four-stage Holocaust analysis, Brunetaux for a dialogue on anti-Semitic Paris, and Levin for laws and administration.

[12] Leslie A. Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).

[13] Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France.

[14] Sprout, The Musical Legacy of Wartime France.